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WHAT IS SATURATED STEAM? WHAT IS SUPERHEAT STEAM?

Saturated steam and superheated steam are two common states of steam used in industries, especially heating systems. Bringing great benefits to many businesses in terms of increased efficiency and reduced costs, steam is currently the top choice of manufacturing plants.

1. Statuses of industrial steam

Industrial steam is a form of steam produced from boilers with small to medium capacity, with low temperature and pressure parameters. Steam is created through a technological process to heat water to a boiling state. At each factory, the collected steam will have pressure and temperature parameters suitable for the intended use of that factory.

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Steam normally exists in two common states: saturated steam and superheated steam. These two states are closely related to each other and are successive states in the transformation of water vapor. In today's industries that need to use heat, steam is an almost mandatory choice. Steam is a renewable energy source that can be optimal in terms of replaceability, cleanliness, efficiency, and low cost. Compared to using different media such as heat transfer oil, steam is a more reasonable choice for manufacturers at present.

2. What is saturated steam?

Saturated steam is not simply water vapor saturated with air, but it also offers a series of significant advantages to the industrial sector. Saturated Steam, also known as Saturated Steam, is a state created when hot water turns into steam by boiling water with energy from electricity, thermal oil or fuel in the furnace. Until the water changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase. The temperature value of the steam corresponding to each saturated vapor pressure is fixed. And vice versa, for each saturated steam temperature, the vapor pressure is fixed.

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Saturated steam includes two forms as follows:

  • Moist saturated steam: Moist saturated steam is the common form of saturated steam. This is the state when water vapor in the air reaches an optimal level, creating an environment with high and stable humidity.
  • Dry saturated vapor: A state when the water vapor in the air does not reach saturation level, creating a low humidity environment. Dry saturated steam does not contain a liquid phase, only a gas phase.

3. What is superheated steam?

Superheated steam, also known as Superheated Steam, is a state of steam that has a temperature higher than the saturated steam temperature at the same pressure. When liquid water is heated to a constant temperature, saturated steam is obtained. At this time, the saturated steam may contain a liquid phase and is called moist saturated steam.

After that, we continue to heat the above vapor until there is absolutely no liquid phase left in the vapor, we obtain dry saturated steam. Continuing the heating process of dry saturated steam, the temperature will continue to increase and this is when we obtain superheated steam.

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In theory, the superheated steam temperature value can be adjusted arbitrarily high until the steam changes state again into plasma form. However, in reality, we will only use superheated steam with a common temperature value of 380~540oC.

Superheated steam can contain more thermal energy than saturated steam of the same volume, allowing it to be used for efficient heat transfer, and enhancing pressure in industrial systems.

4. Advantages of saturated steam and superheated steam in industrial production

It can be seen that to invest in a boiler system using saturated steam, the investment cost is quite reasonable compared to superheated steam. That's why many manufacturing businesses prioritize using it.

For superheated steam, one more step is needed, which is to use an external heat source to heat it, converting it from saturated steam to superheated steam. Therefore, the cost will be more expensive than saturated steam. In addition, superheated steam is a state of completely dry steam, high temperature easily leads to higher wear and tear on equipment & pipes, thereby increasing maintenance costs during furnace use.

5. How are saturated steam and superheated steam used in industrial production?

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Fields use both saturated steam and superheated steam

  • Saturated steam and superheated steam are both used in processing and packaging technology at confectionery factories, packaged food factories, milk production, meat production, alcohol production and food factories.
  • Saturated steam and superheated steam are widely used in pasteurization and filtration at fish sauce, vegetable oil and soy sauce factories... to ensure hygiene and health safety standards.
  • Saturated and superheated steam both have excellent and safe disinfection properties, so they are used in the medical industry (disinfection of medical equipment, clinics, hospitals...), industrial hygiene and even industrial use. steaming, ironing, and sterilization technology in factories manufacturing electronic chip equipment, fashion garments, textiles...

Fields where superheated steam is used

Superheated steam is used for engines of vehicles such as ships, trains, etc.

Superheated steam is also used in turbine drives: Superheated steam helps maintain the dryness of the steam for equipment, improves thermal efficiency and working capacity, and is beneficial for the steam discharge and pressure-boosting processes. Superheat pressure at the turbine inlet helps increase enthalpy. Thanks to that, thermal efficiency is increased.

Steam has been chosen as an energy carrier for industrial production processes for many years thanks to its outstanding advantages. High specific heat capacity, high latent heat, high heat transfer coefficient, easy distribution and control, and low cost have made steam the preferred choice of the textile, food, medical, and health industries. electronics... using a boiler system.

So, through the information just now, hopefully, you can understand more about steam and the application of optimal steam in industry. To contact consultants for the fastest support on the supply chain of boiler systems, fuel, and operational management according to needs, and customers please contact us via hotline for the fastest support.

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