Large coal reserves from Russia play a crucial role in balancing energy reserves. Russian coal imports have a high potential for Asian countries in general and Vietnam in particular.

1. Overview of Russian Coal

Coal has been one of Russia's strategic energy resources for decades. The Russian Federation has abundant coal resources, contributing significantly to the global energy supply. Russia ranks third in coal reserves (182 billion tons) and is the sixth-largest coal producer in the world (accounting for 4.5% of global coal production). According to the Russian Ministry of Energy, the country's coal reserves are sufficient for 300 years of usage, posing no threats to energy security.


Russia has 22 coal basins and 146 individual mines, with most coal produced through surface mining. Russian coal includes two main types: brown coal and anthracite, with brown coal comprising over 80% of production.

Russian coal is used as fuel for power plants, an essential component in many steel mills, and is also utilized in the chemical industry. Therefore, coal can be classified based on its usage purposes: energy coal and coking coal.

2. Distribution of Coal Reserves in Russia


Coal in Russia is distributed across various regions, with significant concentrations in Eastern Siberia (84%) and the Far East (6%). The Kemerovo region, located on the vast Kuznetsk coal basin, one of the world's largest coal mines, holds over half of Russia's coal reserves (56%). Kemerovo has been considered the "capital" of the coal mining industry in Russia for hundreds of years, providing fuel to the entire eastern region of Russia and exporting to European countries. Other major coal mines include Kansko-Achinsky (12%), the Zabaikalsk region (6%), and Khakassia (4%).


Apart from the Kuznetsk basin in southwestern Siberia, eastern Siberia, the Republic of Tuva (Ulug-Khem Basin), including Elegestkoe, Mezhegeyskoe, Kaa-Khem, Chadanskoe, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) including Elgin, Chulmakanskoe, and the territory across Baikal (Apsat), are promising centers for coal production capacity.

Furthermore, Russia divides coal mining regions into seven economic zones, with four key regions:

  • West Siberia: 252.1 million tons – accounting for 61.7% of coal production.
  • East Siberia: 96.7 million tons – accounting for 23.6% of coal production.
  • Far East: 44.1 million tons – accounting for 10.8% of coal production.
  • Northwestern Federal District of Russia: 9.1 million tons – accounting for 2.2% of coal production.


3. Potential Development of Russian Coal

The vast coal reserves from Russia play a crucial role in balancing energy reserves. Russian coal imports have a high potential for Asian countries in general and Vietnam in particular. Thanks to the flexible pricing policies of Russian coal companies in the international market, Russian coal is produced at relatively low costs.


In recent years, Russia has focused on coal processing, from raw materials to newly developed products, with processing conducted in around 65 specialized coal processing plants.

Moreover, to obtain valuable materials, the country is also researching methods to reuse coal-fired power plant slag to reduce the toxicity of waste and recover valuable materials. This environmentally friendly method helps examine the structure and composition of the slag and develop techniques for iron, aluminum, and silicon production from coal slag.

The potential growth prospects for Russian coal exports are promising due to its favorable geographical location between the European and Asian markets. To expand coal exports and mark its presence in the global coal trade sector, the Russian government has planned to develop and enhance the modernization of ports, railways, and related infrastructure.

4. Advantages of Russian Coal


  • High calorific value: Russian coal burns easily when combined with other fuels, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the heating process in boilers and power plants.
  • Effective application: Russia produces coking coal, which is widely used in steelmaking and is considered one of the best products globally. Furthermore, Russian coal is applied in numerous industries and fields, making it one of the most important and popular fuel sources today.
  • Improved quality: Due to the increased application of coal processing technology in coal refining plants, the amount of processed coal with higher calorific value has increased significantly, and the quality of coal has been substantially improved.
  • Abundant reserves: With its vast coal reserves, Russian coal will be a long-term import source for many countries, contributing to reducing prices of oil, natural gas, gasoline, and fuel.

5. Application of Russian Coal in Industries


Coal-fired power plants: Coal is primarily used as fuel converted into energy. Currently, Russian coal is used to generate electricity with a more efficient method, namely the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process.

Gasification technology: Coal gasification is used to produce gases such as synthesis gas, CO, and H2, each of which is applied in specific fields. Synthesis gas is used to produce electricity or converted into fuel, methanol.

Liquefaction technology: Liquefaction is also a prominent application of Russian coal, converting it into synthetic fuels.

Refined coal: With technological advancements, coal is refined to remove moisture and harmful substances to the environment. This processing method has affected and changed the characteristics of coal before combustion, and Russian coal after refining has been applied in many industries.

Metallurgical industry: The smelting process occurs when metals melt. Russian coal plays a role as a fuel, burning slowly to reduce pressure. The purpose is to create a "barrier" to prevent metal from appearing in the sand gap. Moreover, it is also used as a mold-containing material.

Chemical production: Russian coal is also an indispensable material in the chemical production sector, used through the coal gasification process. Some chemicals produced include ammonia, methanol, olefins, etc.

6. Thuan Hai - Reliable Supplier of Russian Coal in Vietnam

As one of the first private enterprises to import and trade coal in Vietnam, Thuan Hai has established long-term cooperation with large coal mines. This advantage helps us ensure stable and continuous coal reserves.


Thuan Hai commits to product quality by conducting on-site inspections at coal mines and rigorously inspecting coal sources before transportation to Vietnam. To maintain quality stability, coal is stored and preserved in enclosed warehouses equipped with roofing, conveyor belts, and dust filtration systems to protect the environment. We invest in modern equipment (laboratory rooms, moisture testing machines, thermal testing machines, etc.) to regularly control the quality of fuel from input to output.

Thuan Hai has built a system of 6 satellite warehouses stretching from North to South with a total capacity of 1.2 million tons, located near industrial zones and major routes, facilitating more convenient fuel import and storage. Additionally, we have a fleet of over 100 transport vehicles to optimize costs and transportation time for customers. Purchasing procedures are always carried out quickly and professionally.

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